Perfect Term Paper Example – Homework 3 Solution

Term Paper Example 1


Danielle Piha

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University of Delaware


This paper (Term Paper Example 1) discusses the issue of Cyberbullying in our society. It examines the fundamentals of cyberbullying such as what cyberbullying is, the methods used to cyber bully, and the types of cyberbullying that occur. It will also explain how to prevent cyberbullying from taking place, the signs that may indicate cyberbullying is occurring, and ways to approach cyberbullying in terms of resolving the issue at hand if it does end up happening.


With the advancement of technology in our society comes a variety of ups and downs. Unfortunately, one of the biggest issues with the multimedia world today is the prevalence of cyberbullying. According to Smith (2008), the definition of cyberbullying is “an aggressive, intentional act carried out by a group or individual, using electronic forms of contact, repeatedly and over time against a victim who cannot easily defend him or herself.” A study done by Raskauskas and Stoltz showed that forty-nine percent of students reported being victims to online bullying, and twenty-one percent of students reported engaging in the act of being an online bully (Smith, 2008). These are numbers that have been sky rocketing in the last couple of years due to the increase in use of technology, and are expected to continue rising due to the number of children who have access to the internet and mobile devices. It is also suspected that there is a higher incidence with girls rather than boys in terms of being the target and the predator. This is because girls are thought to use technology more frequently (Slonje, 2008).

Methods and Types of Cyberbullying

Cyberbullying can occur in many different ways due to the various forms of technology available. The most common types are through a phone call, text message, email, picture/video clip, instant message, website, or chat room. Text messaging, phone calls, and emails were the most frequent method used out of them all. The majority of this was found to take place outside of school, usually at home. Therefore, children who are using technology frequently when home are at a greater risk (Smith, 2008).

There are various types of cyberbullying that take place. The main categories are harassment, flaming, denigration, and impersonation. Harassment involves online behavior that is repetitive, long lasting, and offensive. It is used most commonly through email, instant messaging, text messaging, and social networking sites. It consists of a bully sending hundreds of aggressive messages to a single person. Flaming is portrayed as a heated exchange between two or more kids, so it occurs usually in a public environment like a chat room. It is usually a shorter period of time and can become very powerful, personal, and result in strong emotional reactions. Denigration is when a bully spreads a lie or cruel rumor about someone with the intention of ruining that person’s reputation. This can be done by sending out false emails or instant messages to other people, posting a false statement on a social networking site, or changing a picture to portray something else and then sending it out to other people digitally. Impersonation is when a bully imitates or poses as the victim, and sends hateful or hurtful things out to others making it look like the victim said them. This is usually carried out through fake emails, instant messages, or social media sites that they hacked that are the victims (Carpenter, n.d.).

The four other important types of cyberbullying to be aware of are trickery, outing, exclusion, and exposure. Trickery is a very common type because it is easier than most of the others and can result in a huge negative impact on the victim. This is when the bully acts like they want to be good friends with the victim, and tricks the victim into trusting them. Then, the bully has the victim discuss mean things about other people with them. Later, the bully sends all the hurtful things the victim got tricked into saying out to all the people they talked about. This results in the victim losing all of their friends and makes them look terrible. Outing is simply when a bully shares private information about the victim with others over the internet. This one is used a lot with girls, because they tend to tell their friends a lot more about themselves. Then, when they get mad they announce the other person’s personal information publicly. Exclusion, also known as cyberostracism, is when a bully blocks the victim from being involved in online social activity. This can happen by being blocked from sending emails or messages to others, or being denied on a social media site when asking to be someone’s friend. Lastly, exposure is the phenomenon of posting embarrassing photos or videos of the victim online. All of these types of cyberbullying can result in the victim being extremely depressed or devastated (Carpenter, n.d.).

Preventing Cyberbullying

It is crucial for our society to learn about the actions that you can take to prevent cyberbullying from occurring. There are preventative measures that schools and parents can take to reduce the chances of this happening. In schools, it is important to start by creating an “anti-bullying task force” consisting of different levels of faculty. Once this is created, they should work to raise awareness campaigns about how cyberbullying forms, and how to prevent it from occurring. They should involve the students in creating and applying the teaching techniques to their peers. Also, teaching them how to avoid it, respond to it, and report it are crucial elements that will eliminate the chances of cyberbullying from taking place. Schools should also inform the students about the consequences involved with cyberbullying such as detention, expulsion, and criminal prosecution. Also, encourage them not to share private information and to report any cyberbullying they believe is occurring. Establishing a relationship with local law enforcement and having them talk to students is a big help as well. Lastly, making sure that schools the students will be continuing on to have a cyberbullying prevention program is ideal to make sure they will be consistently aware of how to prevent it from happening (National Center for Mental Health Promotion and Youth Violence Prevention, 2009).

At home there are also preventative measures parents can take to reinforce the topic that children are now aware of hopefully from school. First, parents need to be sure they understand cyberbullying and how technology can be used to carry this act out before talking with their family about it. They can also contact internet service provider (IPS) to learn about their policy and suggestions on the topic. While talking with IPS, parents can also learn how to set controls that will monitor their children’s internet activity. After that, parents should identify which sites their children are visiting online, set limits about which sites they can go on, and for how long. Parents then should talk to their children about what to do if they ever receive a cyberbullying message. They should tell them to either ignore it, or ask they bully to remove the harmful material. Remember to remind children not to share any sort of personal information online such as passwords, addresses, phone numbers, or full names. Lastly, keeping any household computers in public areas of the house is also likely to reduce the risk (National Center for Mental Health Promotion and Youth Violence Prevention, 2009).

Signs of Cyberbullying

In the event that a child does get cyber bullied, there are some red flag warning signs that people should be aware of so they know to intervene. A common sign is when a child who frequently uses the computer suddenly stops using the computer altogether. Another big sign is when the child shows actions of nervousness or jumpiness when they receive an instant message, text message, or email come through on their computer or phone. Also, if the child appears anxious about going to school or even leaving the house in general, there is a good chance this is occurring. There are also emotional changes such as anger, depression, or frustration after using a computer when previously the child did not display these emotions afterwards. Lastly, if the child refuses to discuss online activities or strangely withdraws from usual friends and family members, there is a chance that they are being cyber bullied (Hinduja, 2009).

In the case that your child is the cyber bully, there are also profound warning signs that can be seen so you know to get involved. If the child abruptly changes screens or closes the internet when you walk by, you should be suspicious. Also, if they are up late hours throughout the night and get abnormally upset if they cannot get on the computer you should look into this. Another important sign is if they laugh a lot when they are on the computer, and avoid talking about what they are doing on the computer. Lastly, if you see they are using multiple accounts online or if you see them on one that is not their own, there is a strong possibility this is the reason (Hinduja, 2009).

There are also warning signs of cyberbullying in general that can be seen in the form of emotional, social/behavioral, or academic changes. For emotional changes, the child may suddenly become withdrawn or shy, depressed, very moody or agitated, uneasy or overly stressed out, or show signs of hostile behavior. Socially or behaviorally the child may suddenly stop using the computer, exhibit a change in eating or sleeping habits, have nightmares, withdraw from activities they once took pleasure in, injure themselves or attempt suicide, or abruptly change their group of friends. Academically, the child may refuse to go to school, act out in school, skip school, lose interest in school, or let their grades suddenly drop. In the end, the most important sign of them all that indicates cyberbullying is occurring is the sudden withdraw from technology after they previously used it on a daily basis (National Crime Prevention Council, 2001).

Resolving Cyberbullying

Unfortunately cyberbullying does occur, so when it happens it is important to know how to resolve the issue. The first thing you should do is talk to your child about what is going on and tell them never to retaliate by being a cyber bully as well. After that, you should inform the child’s school officials, inform the police, and ask them the details about the bullying so you can come up with a “safety plan” for them. You should then reinforce the problem of sharing personal information and make sure they don’t do so. Then, tell them to save “the evidence” of the bullying that was done so you can identify the bully and contact someone with proof. Next, you should change the child’s number or get a new email account set up so there can’t be any further contact between them and the bully. Also, teach them how to be confident. According to Borba (2008), “research finds that kids who learn how to be assertive and appear more confident are less likely to be targeted by bullies.” Lastly, have a serious conversation with the child because this is extremely hard for them to go through. You need to make sure that they are stable, and support them in every way possible (Borba, 2008).


In conclusion, this paper has identified the major aspects of cyberbullying and how it can seriously impact a child’s life. This is a very serious issue that will only continue to grow with our advancement in technology. Being aware of this problem and actively trying to prevent it are crucial in keeping cyberbullying under control. Also, knowing what to watch for is equally important so you can end the bullying before it gets even further out of control. Lastly, knowing how to properly intervene when cyberbullying does occur helps to resolve the issue as best as possible.


Borba, M. (2008, October 14). How to protect kids from cyberbullying. Retrieved from

Carpenter, D. (n.d.). Types of cyber bullying. Retrieved from

Hinduja, S. (2009). Cyberbullying warning signs. Retrieved from

National Center for Mental Health Promotion and Youth Violence Prevention. (2009).Preventing cyberbullying in schools and the community. Retrieved from

National Crime Prevention Council. (2001). Cyberbullying spotting the signs. Retrieved from Tip Sheet -Spotting the Signs.pdf

Slonje, R. (2008). Cyberbullying: Another main type of bullying?. Scandinavian Journal of  Psychology, 49(2), 147–154. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9450.2007.00611.x

Smith, P. K. (2008). Cyberbullying: its nature and impact in secondary school pupils. Journal of  Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49(4), 376–385. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2007.01846.x

Term Paper Example 2

Danielle Ragno


Multimedia Research Paper

November 26, 2012

LinkedIn and Building a Career

Throughout the years, the internet has continued to evolve, and so has social networking.  Facebook and MySpace were the two biggest players.  Now, social networking has evolved with the evolution of Tumblr, Twitter, Pinterest, and LinkedIn.  LinkedIn has become a major player in creating a career network.  It is almost like an interactive business card, where you can build networks of employers, groups, and school connections.  Joining LinkedIn can become very challenging for many people because it is hard to know where to start, how to make increase connections, and how to find employers.  Thus, I will delve into 3 specific topics that should help anyone create a strong LinkedIn profile that can help them with their future career.  First, I will be discussing how to build a proper LinkedIn profile, including what is appropriate and not appropriate to include. Secondly, I will discuss how to research employers and job opportunities on the site.  Finally, it is important to know how to professionally network online and how to turn connections into opportunities.

Building a LinkedIn profile can be confusing, and time consuming to do,but it is well worth it.  Most employers today are on LinkedIn and actively analyzing prospective employers profiles.  Thus, I will display an outline of steps to take when creating a professional LinkedIn profile.  The first thing someone will see on your LinkedIn profile is your headline.  Having a headline that sticks in an employer or connections head is an important.  It should be short, sweet and memorable.  Another element connections will first see is your photo.  One of the most important things people miss, is that there needs to be an appropriate photograph on your LinkedIn profile.  A professional photo, that is not showing someone at a party or a picture of Pikachu from Pokemon.   These first two elements give the first impression, and makes the person looking at your profile think “should I continue to read?”.  A good first impression is key to build connections.  One of the key elements that potential employers look at is education.  A good LinkedIn profile shows off all elements of education including institutions, relevant coursework, any social and educational activities, GPA, and honors and awards (Linked Intelligence). The more merits  you have in your education, the more appealing you will be to employers.  Also, any relevant internships, volunteering, or other positions that you have had that are relevant, include them!  Another element of your LinkedIn profile is the specialties section, where students can put anything that someone would want to see as skill that you possess. With all the things listed above, your profile can stand out and have someone want to be your connection, but what happens after your connected to a potential employer? (The CV Center)

Even if your profile were to be completely brilliant, sitting and doing nothing with your LinkedIn will make connections quickly forget about you.  LinkedIn gives the ability to posts statuses.  Posting intellectual and relevant statuses keeps potential connections more interested in your profile.  Joining groups is a great way to connect and interact with connections and people who may not yet be connections yet (Desautels).  Make sure to join groups that are relevant to work, school, and social interests.  Finally, it is important to show connections what you can do in the workplace.  It is important to add work samples including projects, writing samples, or even designs.  You never know when you have a project or sample that is relevant to something an employer is looking for an employer.

By following all these steps, employers and connections will be more attracted to your profile.  However, it is not just the employers that are going to be looking for you, it is important for people, especially students, to do extensive research on employers and search for them.  For example, if I were to get followed by Apple, it is very important that I go to their profile and do research on the company before I would be contacted by them.  There are important steps to take in order to make sure you are well versed in companies that follow you and you follow.  Go to their profile and read their general information.  Look at job postings and recent statuses, see what the company is about (Linked Intelligence.).  Go outside LinkedIn to find a variety of information about the company including recent news stories, their website, etc.  Also, its important to find events on LinkedIn.  As you join groups, many of them will have events or certain companies that follow you have events or career fairs, which are important to get a face to face initiative going with that company.  It is very important for a college student to be well versed in what that company is about, and they want to see the research that has been done on the company.  If they have not done the research, then they will probably waste their time by even going to the event.

So as students conduct research on their potential employers, the most important element of this whole LinkedIn site is how to network professionally.  Now, I will take you through steps on how to network professionally online in an effective matter, so you can continue to grow and gain influence on LinkedIn.  The world we live in today is one that forces us to be connected to each other, thus we need to adjust in order to be the most fit in this social networking environment (

First, students need to make sure that their LinkedIn profile is completely filled out and nothing is missing.  The more that is on your profile, the more of a chance that you have to get noticed.   Actually, it has been shown according to LinkedIn that a profile that is completely filled is 40% more likely to be noticed than a profile that is not completely filled out, that is a big difference.  LinkedIn allows their users to have an inbox where they can exchange messages with their connections.  It is important to use this and keep connections with people like internship co-workers, friends, relatives, and professionals that you have encountered throughout your life.  It is important that you are not afraid to send messages, ask questions related to jobs, or just genuinely keeping in constant contact and keeping these people close to you.  Also, if you someone decides to connect with you or you connect with someone else, send a message mentioning how you appreciate them adding you or you would appreciate adding them as a friend, it is just a necessary common courtesy and a great point to start out to make those connections stronger.

As mentioned previously, joining groups is an essential part of LinkedIn, but it is necessary to participate in these groups. Joining in on discussions is a great way to interact with professionals in the industry, classmates, or faculty at your school.  Plus, as these discussions are seen by other professionals, it can lead to even more connections on your LinkedIn profile.  However, knowledge is important, make sure that you have new and relevant information in discussions on LinkedIn so you can stand out (Desautels).  Question any and everything that you can and bring some fresh ideas to the table.  Also, there is a section on LinkedIn that is called Answers. Similar to Yahoo Answers, people post questions for answers.  Be as active as possible in the Answers segment of the website so that you can show people that you have what it takes to answer questions, and as said before question other peoples’ answers (Desautels).

Finally, the last important aspect of connecting on LinkedIn is not connecting on LinkedIn.  What?  That does not make any sense right? Wrong.  Connections on LinkedIn can only go so far.  Making sure that these connections end up in real world contact is important.  Try to set up phone conferences, create events, and attend live events.  This way, you can create the strongest connection someone can have, which is a human connection. When establishing these human connections, make that connection as strong as possible, build a friendship and have deep conversations with people.  Finally, make sure you are connected on LinkedIn if you are not already, as well as get a phone number and another point of contact.

By taking all of these steps in creating an effective profile, doing research on companies, and making sure that you are well connecting online through LinkedIn, there is a much higher chance of getting a position after college and growing your career.  By increasing all of your connections, you are increasing your potential opportunities in your career, and no one can ever complain about that.

Works Cited

“100 Ways to Use LinkedIn.” Linked Intelligence. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Nov. 2012. <>.

Desautels, Barbara. “Social Networking:” Journal of Leadership Studies 2.2 (2008): 103-04. Print.

“The Importance of Social Networking for Business Part III: LinkedIn Chapter 1.” IPWatchdogcom Patents Patent Law The Importance of Social Networking for Business Part III LinkedIn Chapter 1 Comments. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Nov. 2012. <>.

“Read the.” Career Blog RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Nov. 2012. <>.

“What Is LinkedIn? Why Is It so Important?” The CV Centre. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Nov. 2012. <>.

Term Paper Example 3

   Facebook: The Resume You Didn’t Know You Had:

An In Depth Look At Companies Use of Facebook To Research Potential Hires


This paper discusses the growing trend of employers using Facebook and other social media pages of potential employees to evaluate their personality and determine if they are right for the job. It examines both past research conducted along with primary research conducted in the form of interview. Finally, the author gives personal experience and recommendations based on all the different sources covered in this paper.


Table of Contents

  1. Introduction
  2. Secondary Research Summary and Analysis
  3. Primary Research Summary and Analysis
  4. Personal Experience and Recommendations
  5. Conclusion
  6. References


The average college student spends 106 minutes on Facebook each day (Blogspot). We share our photos, videos, likes, dislikes, thoughts, and opinions with the 1 billion members of the world’s largest social media website. There are privacy settings we have the ability to control which dictate who can and cannot see our content, however we are still painting an online portrait of ourselves open to the semi-public eye. The Patriot Act allows state agencies to bypass privacy settings on Facebook in order to look up potential employees. (Debatin) It is only logical that employers have begun to use this available information in order to assist them in deciding whether or not a candidate will make an efficient employee.

Secondary Research Summary and Analysis

According to a nationwide survey conducted by Harris Interactive, approximately thirty seven percent of hiring managers use social media sites to research their job applicants. (Richard) Similar studies have shown an even greater percentage of employers doing this, some even as high as ninety one percent (Sunshine). Not surprisingly, Facebook is most often the primary resource used. Eleven percent of the surveyed managers said that they planned to begin using Facebook for said purpose so clearly the practice is catching on rapidly (Richard). Only fifteen percent of the surveyed companies had official policies that forbade their managers from using social media sites as a resource for their hiring process (Richard) .

There seems to be some discrepancy between employers’ reasons for utilizing this practice. Sixty five percent reported doing it “to see if the applicant ‘presents him- or herself professionally (Richard).’” Fifty percent wanted to find out if the candidate would fit in well with the company’s culture.  Forty five percent said they simply wanted to learn more about the potential employee’s qualifications. Twelve percent admitted to using the resources specifically to find some reason to not hire the person and of the entire 2,000-manager sample, thirty four perecent had already experienced at least one incident where they found reason to not hire from the applicant’s social media presence (Richard). Some of the reasons given for those decisions were the person speaking badly about a former employer, lying about qualifications, and being a poor writer. The main reason, however, was the person having provocative photos and/or making reference to drinking or drug use. That accounted for just over half of the cases (Richard). The silver lining for potential employees is that 18% of employers had at least once found content on a candidate’s social media sites that influenced him/her to hire that candidate (Sunshine). The top reasons given for that were “a good feel for the candidate’s personality,” confirmation of their qualifications, and creativity (Sunshine).

For companies, using Facebook to gain information about people does not end with the hiring process anymore. Last year the National Labor Relations Board elected to give employers the right to fire employees for having inappropriate content on any of their social media sites (Sunshine)

There has been a lot of public opposition towards how employers are misusing and abusing people’s Facebooks. A popular argument claims that a person’s Facebook page is nothing more than a social and personal expression, which has zero influence on that person’s ability to perform a job well. The problem with this assertion is that a study published by the Journal of Applied Social Psychology earlier this year proved that a person’s Facebook profile can be an accurate predictor to what employee he/she may be (Hill).

In a series of two studies conducted by researchers at Northern Illinois University, the University of Evansville and Auburn University, six people with experience in human resources were asked to rate a sample of 500 people in terms of key personality traits using only the sample group’s Facebook pages as a guideline (Hill).

The raters were told to spend roughly five to ten minutes with each person’s Facebook page, and work on the project for no longer than one and a half hours per day to avoid fatigue. They were asked to rate members of the sample group on what is known as the “Big Five” personality traits, which includes extroversion, conscientiousness, emotional stability, agreeableness and openness to new experiences. Human resources managers generally accept high scores on these traits as an indication of future good job performance (Hill).

The researchers found that the raters were generally in agreement about the personality traits expressed in the sample group’s Facebook page, and that their ratings correlated strongly with self-rated personality traits. More importantly, they also found that the Facebook ratings were a more accurate way of predicting a person’s job performance than an IQ test (Kluemper).

Whether we like it or not, Facebook and other social media sites are “becoming the digital proxies for our real world selves (Hill).” Many employers are beginning to think that they can gauge more about a person’s personality, characteristics, and likely level of success with the company from their Facebook page than they can from a quick and rigorous interview.

From the employer’s point of view, why wouldn’t they want to use every legal resource they have available to research their applicants before making a very large investment on a person? The costs of hiring and training a new employee hold a much greater weight than the risk of not performing a full and thorough background check on that employee.

Primary Research Summary and Analysis

Mashi Blech is the director of the Visiting Nurse Service of New York’s Community Connections TimeBank. She runs the entire 1,500-member program and oversees the 23 employees in her department. She is responsible for the hiring and firing processes as well. I had the chance to interview Blech over the phone about her experiences with those processes with regards to social media’s influence upon them. Up until about 18 months ago Blech had never used nor felt the need to use social media background checks for hiring candidates. This was until she made the decision to hire a man whom she chose not to name.  She explained to me that “he was a brilliant man, but his personality did not quite fit in with our department’s culture. Collaboration was a key aspect of his position and his need to always be right prevented him from working nearly as efficiently as I had hoped.”

After she chose to let him go, she decided to take a look at the man’s Facebook page. “I had heard of other people using Facebook to learn more about hiring candidates and I wanted to see for myself if the practice had any merit.” She had always considered Facebook to be a purely social site so never thought that using it for research was a valid method. However, her opinion changed when she looked at the profile page of the man she had just fired.

“I found several red flags that would have made me think twice about hiring him in the first place,” Blech stated. He had posted several misogynistic comments, badmouthed past employers, and his page was littered with profanity. Blech found that those facts matched his personality in the office remarkably well. She now performs Facebook searches for all her new applicants.  She commented on how it is especially important to do for positions that require a great deal of human interaction and collaboration. “It’s better for me to figure out that we aren’t a good match before any contracts are signed. It saves us both time and money.” She ended the interview saying, “you can only tell so much from a formal interview. Sometimes people aren’t being themselves, but rather the person they think you want them to be. It’s just helpful to have this extra resource available.” Since that incident 18 months ago, Blech has turned down two potential candidates based on things she saw on their Facebook pages.

Personal Experience and Recommendations

Last year I was searching for an internship with an advertising firm in New York City for the summer. During my search I managed to secure an interview with a marketing strategy and execution firm called CreativeFeed. The discussion went very well and I really felt as if I had clicked with my interviewer. However, she caught me very off guard with a statement she made at the end of the interview. She told me that she was very impressed with me as a candidate, but she was a little put off by some of the content published on my Facebook page. There were some photos of me consuming alcohol. I explained to her that I’m 21 years old and I drink alcohol casually, but it has zero effect on my work ethic and I know I would be a great asset to their company. After a few minutes of discussion on the subject I had calmed her worries. I ended up working there this past summer, but my Facebook page was very close to keeping me from getting the position.


It is very easy for our generation to get very angry over this perceived invasion of privacy. We feel as if our online social presence is completely uncorrelated with how we can perform in the workplace. However, the reality of the world is that more and more employers can and will look at our Facebooks at some point during the hiring process and we cannot change that. So my advice to all young adults is to adapt to the changing world and edit your Facebook pages. Keep incriminating photos (especially those with alcohol or drugs) off of the Internet. Try to not leave tons of substance-less comments everywhere. Employers tend to get turned off by those who seem to spend every waking second on social media sites. It is also smart to keep the comments you do post free from expletives and vulgar, insensitive comments. Do not post any negative comments about past employers or colleagues. If you don’t know somebody, don’t connect with him or her on social media. There’s always a chance that he or she is a person you do not want to be associated with (Sunshine). Your Facebook page is almost like your first interview. The chances are if an employer doesn’t like you there than they are not going to like working with you. We live in a world where we love to share every single thought we have with all of our friends. This is a dangerous habit and a slippery slope. We must remember that the Internet publishes content permanently and many things are better left off of it.


Bennett, Shea. “91% of Employers Use Twitter, Facebook And LinkedIn To Screen Job Applicants.” Mediabistro. N.p., 24 Oct. 2011. Web. 30 Nov. 2012. <>.

Debatin, Bernhard, Jennette P. Lovejoy, Ann-Kathrin Horn, and Brittany N. Hughes. “Facebook and Online Privacy: Attitudes, Behaviors, and Unintended Consequences.” Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 15.1 (2009): 83-108. Print.

Hayden, William R., and Stephanie R. Leach. “Background Checks and the Pitfalls That Employers Face.” Employee Relations Law Journal 38.1 (2012): 14. Academic OneFile. Summer 2012. Web. 1 Dec. 2012. <|A290418337&v=2.1&u=laureate12&it=r&inPS=true&prodId=AONE&userGroupName=laureate12&p=AONE&digest=155690bc6bb31db1d5b606620d7e64ea&rssr=rss>.

Hill, Kashmir. “Facebook Can Tell You If A Person Is Worth Hiring.” Forbes. N.p., 5 Mar. 2012. Web. 28 Nov. 2012. <>.

Hill, Kashmir. “What Employers Are Thinking When They Look At Your Facebook Page.” Forbes. N.p., 6 Mar. 2012. Web. 28 Nov. 2012. <>.

Kelley, Michael. “Your Facebook Profile Can Determine What Type Of Employee You’ll Be.” Business Insider. N.p., 5 Mar. 2012. Web. 28 Nov. 2012. <>.

Kluemper, Donald H., Peter A. Rosen, and Kevin W. Mossholder. “Social Networking Websites, Personality Ratings, and the Organizational Context: More Than Meets the Eye?” Journal of Applied Social Psychology 42.5 (2012): 1143-172. Print.

Richard, Jocelyn. “37 Percent Of Employers Use Facebook To Pre-Screen Applicants, New Study Says.” The Huffington Post., 20 Apr. 2012. Web. 29 Nov. 2012. <>.

Sunshine, James. “How Companies Use Facebook To Hire And Fire Employees.” The Huffington Post., 4 Aug. 2012. Web. 29 Nov. 2012. <>.

“Your GPA on Facebook.” Blogspot. N.p., 7 Sept. 2012. Web. 1 Dec. 2012. <>.

Term Paper Example 4

Donna Muccio


Fall 2012

The Adverse Effects of Multimedia on Adolescent Self Esteem

During adolescence there are many apparent changes experienced, some being physical, academic, and social changes. What adolescents may not realize is that they are undergoing psychological changes as well. With a changing self concept, the knowledge of one’s self, those in adolescence experience the development of a complex self esteem. One’s self esteem is the attitude toward one’s self concept, that is, the emotion attached to how one thinks about one’s self. During this unstable period of life, adolescents are extremely impressionable thus many factors influence their self concepts including parents, teachers, peers, and the media. According to Carlson, those in preadolescence rely on their peers to develop their self concepts and self esteems, however during adolescence, self concepts and self esteems are influenced mainly on how well one fits with their gender’s roles (Carlson, 1965). One hypothesis is that the media reinforces these gender roles having a strong influence on adolescents’ self concepts and self esteems. Further, it may be that certain types of media create general ideals for adolescents and other types of media instill these ideals on adolescents’ everyday lives, overall affecting self esteem.

The two general types of multimedia are defined based on level of involvement and action of the individual with the media. Specifically, multimedia can be one or two sided so that the individual is either passively or actively engaged in the media. Individuals passively engage in many different types of one sided media including television, magazines, websites, and movies. In such forms of media, ideals are expressed as factual for the user to see and believe to be true without the individual having to fully involve himself. On the other hand, individuals actively engage in other forms of multimedia including numerous types of social media and means of communication. These individuals are participants of the media such that they are fully involved by contributing messages or pictures and these contributions stem from the ideals from the afore mentioned media. Self concepts may be affected by participation in media such that others’ comments towards the individual or in general are influential and in addition, one’s ideas about himself may be affected based on his own contributions. The generation of ideals from one sided media in combination with the instilling of these ideals into the individual’s actions and interactions has a strong influence on self concepts and self esteems, especially during adolescence.

One sided forms of media have a strong influence in that they exemplify what adolescents believe to be what is normal and cool. Prime examples of this fact are seen in the effects of the messages sent through magazines and television shows. In fact, there is a strong correlation between the viewing of “photographic idealized images” (i.e. “attractive” models) in magazines and negative effects on body dissatisfaction and mood (Hargreaves & Tiggemann, 2002). The results of a study by Hargreaves and Tiggemann were found to support the sociocultural theory which states that “unrealistic ideals of attractiveness, such as those portrayed in many television commercials, responsible for current high levels of body dissatisfaction” (Hargreaves & Tiggemann, 2002). This evidence exemplifies the idea that one sided media creates a standard that people believe they must live up to.

The messages engrained in television shows dictate what the watchers think to be the right thing to do. For example, the MTV series 16 and Pregnant and its spin off Teen Mom, though providing a clear depiction of the associated hardships, glorify teen pregnancy for the viewers. It is argued that these shows make teen girls want to become pregnant so that they can be a subject and become famous (Bedyniak, 2011). These two shows set the ideal for adolescents that it is cool to become pregnant thus influencing their self concepts.

A rather different example of influential one sided media is the internet, specifically pro anorexia and pro self injury websites. Unfortunately there are websites dedicated to teaching viewers how to properly be anorexic and to self harm. These websites, undoubtedly frequently visited by curious adolescents, create the mindset that these behaviors are good. They also may instill thoughts into adolescents’ minds such as “If all of these people are anorexic, should I be concerned with my weight and eating, too?” and “If all of these people are depressed and self harm, maybe I should be, too” which certainly would have an effect on self concepts and self esteems. Research has found that viewing pro anorexia websites has more negative emotional and psychological effects compared to websites that highlight the female figure (Bardone-Cone & Cass, 2006). These websites teach viewers that it is crucial to be thin and the way to reach this goal is anorexia, thus it is likely that viewers, especially vulnerable adolescents, will experience adverse effects to their own self concepts and self esteems.

Similarly, pro self harm websites are negatively influential to viewers in at least two ways. The communities formed on these websites create the message that self harm is normal and effective which influences viewers to question their own mental health and coping mechanisms ultimately altering self concepts and self esteem. According to Whitlock, Lader, and Conterio pro self harm websites are also barriers to recovery in that viewers may rely on the community for support rather than relying on the appropriate therapies and therapists (Whitlock, Lader, & Conterio, 2007). With television shows and movies exemplifying anorexia and self harm as common issues and as escapes or coping mechanisms, these websites provide the information to adopt these behaviors giving the extra push to curious viewers.

Based on the ideals created by these one sided forms of media, individuals’ engagement in two sided forms of media actively reinforces these ideals affecting their self concepts and self esteems. The main difference between the two forms of multimedia is the level of responsibility. With two sided forms of media, individuals are interacting with others with the set of ideals in mind; the adverse effects of the creation of these ideals are multiplied as the interactions have an attached feeling of responsibility. Further, the people involved in this type of media are not anonymous community members or celebrities; rather they are peers, which elevates all interactions and communication to a new level of relevance and personal reality.

An example of a major problem associated with such interactive forms of media is cyber bullying. A common mean of cyber bullying includes posting harassing or hurtful messages, photos, or videos either privately or publicly on websites such as Formspring and Facebook. On Formspring, there is the option for the message to be anonymous which often increases the level of cruelty of the message based on the lack of responsibility. On Facebook and other messaging sources, however, this anonymity is not an option yet cyber bullying persists. Harsh messages from people that you know to be your own peers can be extremely detrimental to mental health. According to Patchin and Hinduja, cyber bullying is especially detrimental for adolescents as this time of life is crucial for identity development and cyber bullying “…ties into a child’s perceptions and acceptance of his or her changing self and plays a critical role in directing his or her personal and even professional growth trajectory” (Patchin & Hinduja, 2010). The study by Patchin and Hinduja concluded that low self esteem is an outcome for both the bully and the bullied, and that such low self esteem has further negative effects in multiple areas of both parties’ lives (Patchin & Hinduja, 2010). The personal interaction of both bullying and being bullied affects the overall self concept and self esteem and unfortunately this is exemplified too often in the news when bullying leads to suicides.

Based on the ideals set by television, movies, magazines, and other influential sources, adolescents today believe that it is important to be sexually involved at a young age. This ideal is expressed through a form of interactive media that has negative effects on adolescents’ self concepts and self esteems, namely text messaging. With this focus on sexuality, text messaging has relatively recently escalated into “sexting” which is a form of text messaging in which one sends sexually explicit pictures or messages through cell phones or other forms of communication. During adolescence today there is peer pressure to engage in sexting, as well as for the receiver to expose the sender. Such exposure of personal information, a form of cyber bullying, would undoubtedly have negative effects on the sender’s self esteem because of shame from both the engagement and the exposure. According to McEachern, “students who are victims of sexting may feel isolated, fearful, and discouraged about school, causing them to be absent more often, withdraw from school activities, and decrease their academic performance” (McEachern, n.d.). Unfortunately, there have been cases in which sexting led to depression and suicide, thus the negative outcomes are immense.

All in all, multimedia has adverse effects on adolescents’ self concepts and self esteems. The media sets unrealistic standards for adolescents to live up to, and when they feel that they don’t measure up, mental health is at stake. Though the type of multimedia engaged in has an effect on the specific outcome, both one and two sided forms of media have adverse effects, thus it is essential to stress the overall relationship between the media’s messages and  adolescents’ mental well beings. A study by Polce-Lynch, Myers, Kliewer, and Kilmartin found that positive body image is directly correlated with positive self esteem; both were found to be influenced by sociocultural influences such as harassment, family and peer relationships, and the media (Polce-Lynch, Myers, Kliewer, & Kilmartin, 2001). Also according to Polce-Lynch, Myers, Kliewer, and Kilmartin, the media negatively affects adolescents’ psychological states with impacts including body image problems, negative gender stereotypes, and eating disorders (Polce-Lynch, Myers, Kliewer & Kilmartin, 2001). Based on unfortunate events seen on national news, it is obvious that it is not unheard of for media influence to have a role in an adolescent’s suicide.

With the knowledge of this adverse relationship between the media and adolescents’ self concepts and self esteems, it is important to make efforts to prevent and cope with the negative effects. Teachers, school counselors, and parents should be made aware of warning signs of risky media use and other behaviors as well as of lowered self esteem and depression. Though it is nearly impossible to control what ideals are created and sustained through the media, it is important to instill the ideas in adolescents’ minds that the media does not portray the average person and it should not be used as a reference point especially during identity development. The importance of prevention is supported by Clay, Vignoles, and Dittmar’s suggestion to “draw a distinction between simply being aware of cultural standards of female beauty, and internalizing them as a personal belief system” (Clay, Vignoles, & Dittmar, 2005). Awareness of the impact that media has on self concept and self esteem is beneficial, but in order to truly prevent the extreme negative outcomes that are associated with the media it is crucial to teach adolescents how to decipher what is reality in the media’s messages.


Bardone-Cone, A. M., & Cass, K. M. (2006). Investigating the impact of pro-anorexia websites:

A pilot study. European Eating Disorders Review, 14(4), 256–262. Retrieved from

Bedyniak, A. B. (2011). The representation of teenage pregnancy in american visual culture on

the example of 16 and pregnant and teen mom. (Master’s thesis, University of Lodz, Poland)Retrieved from

Carlson, R. (1965). Stability and change in the adolescent’s self-image. Child Development,

36(3), 659-666. Retrieved from

Clay, D., Vignoles, V. L., & Dittmar, H. (2005). Body image and self-esteem among adolescent

girls: Testing the influence of sociocultural factors. You have full text access to this content Journal of Research on Adolescence, 15(4), 451–477. Retrieved from

Hargreaves, D., & Tiggemann, M. (2002). The effect of television commercials on mood and

body dissatisfaction: The role of appearance-schema activation. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 21(3), 287-308. Retrieved from

McEachern, A. G. (n.d.). Sexting: New challenges for schools and professional school

counselors. Informally published manuscript, Florida International University, Pinecrest, Fl, Retrieved from

Patchin, J. W., & Hinduja, S. (2010). Cyberbullying and self-esteem. Journal of School Health,

80(12), 614-621. Retrieved from

Polce-Lynch, M., Myers, B. J., Kliewer, W., & Kilmartin, C. (2001). Adolescent self-esteem and

gender: Exploring relations to sexual harassment, body image, media influence, and emotional expression. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 30(2), 225-244. Retrieved from

Whitlock, J., Lader, W., & Conterio, K. (2007). The internet and self-injury: What

psychotherapists should know. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 63(11), 1135-1143. Retrieved from

Term Paper Example 5

Use of the Nintendo Wii Gaming System in Physical Therapy


This paper discusses the increasing use of the Nintendo Wii gaming system in physical therapy settings. The paper describes the gaming system and refrences a specific case study involving the use of the Wii in rehabilitation, cleverly referred to as “wiihabilitation”. It provides information of “wiihab’s” benefits to the patients and the physical therapists. Finally, this paper describes some negative aspects to the gaming system’s use and how this form of technology is being used to educate patients on how to properly rehabilitate themselves.


Table of Contents:

  • Introduction
  • Description of Nintendo Wii
  • Case Study involving “Wiihabilitation”
  • Patient’s Benefits of “Wiihabilitation”
  • Physical Therapist’s Benefits of “Wiihabilitation”
  • Conclusion
  • References



As many undergraduate students know, practice makes perfect. Therefore, as an aspiring physical therapist, I spend a large amount of time in physical therapy clinics observing and doing what I can to help out the therapist while experiencing the environment that I hope to work in some day. Through my observations, past experiences as a physical therapy patient, and some current online research, I have come to recognize that although I love the idea of physical therapy, many people (especially patients) do not. In fact, many patients joke that the abbreviation PT does not stand for “physical therapy” but instead stands for “pain and torture” (Tanner, 2008). I can sympathize with these patients, because physical therapy can at times be “painful and tedious”, often including “hours of stretching and lifting exercises” in order to “recover from injury, illness, or even surgery” (Parker, 2008). There are however, new forms of technology that therapists have adopted to eliminate these monotonous routines and keep patients more interested and engaged in their rehabilitation. “Wiihabilitation” is a new wave of therapy that utilizes the technology of Nintendo’s Wii gaming system along with the guidance of therapists and physicians to form a more exciting form of treatment for physical therapy patients. Patients of all ailments and ages can benefit mentally and physically from the Wii’s incorporation into the physical therapy world.

Description of Nintendo Wii:

Virtual reality, defined as “an immersive, interactive, 3-dimensional computer experience occurring in real time” was first utilized as a form of physical therapy several years ago. These systems allow therapists to control exercise duration, intensity and environments in order to simulate a real world experience without putting patients in danger’s way. Unfortunately these systems are very uncommon in physical therapy clinics because most of the systems are not commercially available and are very expensive (Deutsch, Borbely, Filler, Huhn & Guarrera-Bowlby, 2008). For these reasons, more low-cost commercially available technologies, such as Nintendo’s Wii gaming system, are being subject to testing for use in rehabilitation clinics. Outside of this clinical use, Wii gaming systems are found in many homes and used by healthy individuals as a fun, interactive video game that “use a remote, hand-held motion-sensing wireless controller” that is hooked up to a television. The retail cost of the components is around $500, much cheaper than any clinical virtual reality systems. This system uses “Wii Sports software, a collection of 5 sport-simulations” (Clark & Kraemer, 2009) including “golf, baseball, bowling, boxing, and tennis games” (Mickey, 2012) all which are found to aid in a variety of ailments among different physical therapy patients. Some researchers go above and beyond the use of the Wii Sport software and even introduce the Wii Fit program. The Wii Fit includes accessories such as a Balance Board which “incorporates even more body movement and conditioning principles than Wii games alone, … acts as a scale [that] can chart a [patient’s] body mass index, help set fitness goals, calculate a player’s fitness level and provide tips for improving balance” (Parker, 2008) all of which aid the physical therapist in providing more accurate care for their patients. Overall, Wii games “require body movements similar to traditional therapy exercises”, but are more fun for patients because the patients “become so engrossed mentally [that they are] almost oblivious to the rigor” of the exercises that they are completing (Tanner, 2008).

Case Study involving “Wiihabilitation”:

Although therapists use the Wii for many different ailments of patients, ranging from athletes to the elderly, in each situation the therapist first needs to evaluate the patient’s individual needs before deciding which Wii game the patient should play, for how long, at what intensity, and several other factors to prevent further injury or overuse of the body. In a 2009 case study evaluating the clinical use of the Nintendo Wii bowling game’s effect on reducing the fall risk of an elderly patient, the patient’s physical therapist used the gaming system to create a program “designed to reduce falls in the elderly typically [due to] three major components: strength, balance, and endurance”. This physical therapist’s initially diagnosed the patient with a balance disorder indicating that in order to progress the patient needs an “exercise program such as progressive muscle strengthening, balance training, and an ambulation plan”. The Wii gaming system is chosen for this patient because it is an “activity that involves many of the key biological systems (e.g., visual, somatosensory, vestibular) involved in maintaining balance”. After the use of the Wii bowling simulation for 6 one-hour treatment sessions, the case report of the elderly woman favors the possibility that intervention with the Wii “can produce improvement in balance dysfunction and reduction in fall risk for other similar patients” (Clark & Kraemer, 2009). Similarly, in a study conducted regarding the Wii for rehabilitation of an adolescent male with cerebral palsy, the different sports among the Wii Sport games were each found to have “different motor control and visual-spatial demands”, clinically affecting different parts of the body. The study found that “trunk control was promoted by all games”, whereas “the games played in a standing position [as opposed to the sitting position] emphasize balance with weight transfer between the lower extremities” (Deutsch, Borbely, Filler, Huhn & Guarrera-Bowlby, 2008). Uniformly, a 2008 article quotes Dr. Anne Pinto of Pinto Chiropractic and Rehabilitation in Williamsburg describing how “on-target” the Wii interactive games are with original therapy programs. Dr. Pinto describes how the game “incorporates core stabilization and movement, and posture- all things [she] does with [her] patients in other ways” (Parker, 2008). The obvious benefit to using this gaming system is that the patient gets to believe he or she is playing a fun game, when in reality the patient is rehabilitating.

Patient’s Benefits of “Wiihabilitation”:

A physical therapist’s job not only consists of getting a patient back to functioning, but is also to make sure the patient has an enjoyable experience in therapy. For most patients, physical therapy is not a one-time thing, it is something that needs to be done over and over again ranging anywhere from a few weeks, to years, to a lifetime for some chronic disorders. The use of the Wii gaming system in physical therapy allows patients to relax and have fun with their rehabilitation so that the thought of returning to rehab is not a negative one. The most ideal candidates for Wii use are therapy patients who love to watch or play sports. This love for competition and games makes the “treatment more meaningful”. Similarly, there are games on the Wii that “simulate daily activities beyond sports”. Interactive games involving “cooking, outdoor activities, and even music” are enticing to non-sport-loving patients. Regardless of the Wii simulation that the patient is using, “patients have fun without realizing that they’re also improving and enhancing functions in areas of the body” that need to be rehabilitated. In fact, these Wii sports games involve stimulation of “the brain to change and relearn movements because of the high number of repetitions that individuals are motivated to perform” (McCarthy & Flynn). Since the Wii is a form of virtual reality, the gaming system also gives patients the added benefit of realizing that although they are injured, there is still a possibility of returning to their favorite sports and activities, ultimately leading to more motivation to get better and therefore a quicker and more efficient rehabilitation. A specific study conducted evaluating the use of Wii golf in physical therapy clinics states that the among the added physical benefits of the game, the reality of the simulation comforted the patients, helping them to know that they can still get out there and play golf. This idea of comfort also leads to the motivational benefits of the Wii. Since games are played, regardless of whom the patients are competing against, they are in fact competing. This innate competition, whether it is against oneself, or another, leads to motivation and the drive to continue playing, and therefore continue building strength and rehabilitating (Mickey, 2012). Sometimes, physical therapy patients are allowed to compete against friends, family, or even other patients, using the multi-player function of the game. This game function, especially in the case of the adolescent male with cerebral palsy, tends to “facilitate social interaction” adding an “unexpected therapeutic benefit” (Deutsch, Borbely, Filler, Huhn & Guarrera-Bowlby, 2008). Similarly, when the multiplayer function is shared among people of separate generations, the game can bridge the gap between the generations, as seen in several studies where elderly patients took the gaming console home and played with their children, or even grandchildren (McCarthy & Flynn). Overall the Wii helps physical therapy patient’s put their “mind over matter”. As stated by James Osborn, a supervisor of rehabilitation services at an Illinois hospital, “When people can refocus their attention from the tediousness of the physical task, oftentimes they do much better” (Tanner, 2008). The distraction and entertainment of the game helps patients to forget about any ailments and just have fun while rehabilitating.

Physical Therapist’s Benefits of “Wiihabilitation”:

Although the Wii gaming system has many benefits for patients, there are a multitude of medical advantages of the game, as well. One obvious advantage to the physical therapist is that “patients are more willing to do the practice and repetition [that the therapist is] asking them to do in therapy if they’re having fun” (Mickey, 2012). Therefore, since the patient is having fun, it is actually less work for the therapist. Some patients can be unhappy during therapy sessions because of the preconceived association with “pain and torture” and when patients are unhappy they are a lot less willing to do exercises correctly, or at all. Medically, the game increases a patient’s “hand-eye coordination, balance and control, strength and stability and fine- and gross-motor skills” (McCarthy & Flynn), all functions of the body that most patients go to physical therapy to improve. Another benefit for therapists, as well as patients, is that the Wii gaming system actually speeds up recovery time, and can be used at home (after instructed by a therapist that it is safe to do so). This is a benefit for patients because they do not have to pay for as much treatment and do not have to leave their own home as often for treatment. Physical therapists benefit from a shortened treatment period because they can see and treat more patients in a shorter time frame. Therapists of patients with neurological disorders also clinically benefit from the use of the Wii. As seen in the study of the adolescent with cerebral palsy, the “training [is] task driven and requires problem solving”, both of which “have been shown to promote behavioral changes as well as neural plasticity in children with cerebral palsy” (Deutsch, Borbely, Filler, Huhn & Guarrera-Bowlby, 2008). The constant repetition that the game requires helps to change neurons and enhance motor learning (McCarthy & Flynn), just another added benefit for therapists of patients with neurological disorders. However, the most significant benefit to patients and therapists, when using the Wii gaming system is the feedback that the game provides. The Wii game actually provides users with “haptic feedback” which is the “physical sensation connected with the interaction with objects in the virtual environment” (Deutsch, Borbely, Filler, Huhn & Guarrera-Bowlby, 2008). For example, when playing Wii tennis, the user feels the ball make contact with the racket via the handheld remote, while virtually making contact with the ball in order to hit the ball over the net. This sensory feedback allows the patient to feel more engrossed in the game and helps keep their mind off of the fact that they are actually rehabilitating. Not only do patients receive haptic feedback, but patients as well as therapists receive “scoring [that] provides feedback as [a patient’s] motor skills, range of motion, balance and coordination improve with activity” (Mickey, 2012). This scoring feedback allows patients to see how they are doing, and feeds their competitiveness, while also providing therapists with crucial information needed to adjust the patient’s exercise regiment.


Although Nintendo’s Wii gaming system may seem perfect for physical therapy patients, the technology has still not been approved for formal use in a clinical setting, as the sole form of rehabilitation for patients. There are some disadvantages to “Wiihabilitation” such as the prospect of injury if the games are not played properly (McCarthy & Flynn), or the threat of overuse which one patient called “Wiiitis”, found to in fact be acute tendonitis, a common ailment among real-life tennis players (Tanner, 2008). Personally, as a future physical therapist, I would love to see Nintendo’s Wii incorporated into more physical therapy clinics. I think that technological advances, such as the Wii, are the way of the future and that we should take advantage of the fun and interactive ways to get patients better, such as the Wii in physical therapy clinics. In my opinion, there is no better way to educate patients on different forms of exercises in rehabilitation then to show them how to properly play a different games on the Wii gaming console with one another while, all the while encouraging them to remember that in order to get better you need to practice because “practice makes perfect”.

Term Paper Example


Clark, R., & Kraemer, T. (2009). Clinical use of nintendo wii ™ bowling simulation to

decrease fall risk in an elderly resident of a nursing home: A case report. Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy, 32(4), 174-180. Retrieved from

Deutsch, J., Borbely, M., Filler, J., Huhn, K., & Guarrera-Bowlby, P. (2008). Use of a

low-cost, commercially available gaming console (wii) for rehabilitation of an

adolescent with cerebral palsy. Physical Therapy, 88(10), 1196-1207. doi:


McCarthy, A., & Flynn, S. (n.d.). Wiihabilitation: Good therapy, good fun. Retrieved


Mickey, L. D. (2012, September 8). Physical therapy turn to wii golf. The New York

Times. Retrieved from

Parker, D. (2008). Wii fit: Not just for your christmas list. The Health Journal, Retrieved


Tanner, L. D. (2008, February 09). Doctors use wii games for rehab therapy. USA Today,

Retrieved from

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